Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits. From a natural chemical balance, grapes ferment without the addition, though yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Different varieties of grapes and types of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the variaty of the grape, the reactions in fermentation, the special characteristics of geography, geology, climate and plant genetics, and the legally defined and protected geographical indication used to identify where the grapes for a wine were grown. Rice wine and innumerable fruit wines make a whole variaty, of which some of the best-known are pomegranate wine, apple wine and elderberry wine.
Wine has been produced for thousands of years. The earliest evidence of wine to date was found in the country of Georgia, where 8000-year old wine jars were uncovered. Traces of wine have also been found in Iran with 7,000-year-old wine jars and in Armenia with the 6100-year old considered to be the earliest known winery by far. The earliest form of grape-based fermented drink however, was found in northern China, where archaeologists discovered 9000-year old pottery jars. Wine had reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome.